One of the concepts most commonly discussed in value-chain development projects is that of the 4Ps: the Public, Private, Producer Partnerships. This refers to the strong cooperation arrangements between a government, business agents and smallscale producers, who agree to work together to reach a common goal or carry out a specific task while jointly assuming risks and responsibilities, and sharing benefits, resources and competencies. A 4P arrangement ideally serves multiple development objectives. For example, it can be a mechanism to include a specific target group in value chains led by private companies. Private investment can also facilitate access to markets, technical assistance, knowledge, technology and capital. Finally, intensification of production and development of value chains can generate significant employment opportunities.
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