Nigeria is a huge export market for wheat and rice. High demand for wheat flour for the production of bread, noodles, pasta, crackers and biscuits (cookies) contributes to Nigeria’s wheat market estimated at just under $1 billion in U.S. exports for FY2013. Nigeria depends on about 3 million tons of parboiled rice imports to meet half of its rice demand. Demand for other grains such as corn, sorghum, millet, is also very high. The GON has initiated an Agricultural Transformation Agenda (ATA) to increase agricultural productivity and drastically cut food imports by 2020. Unfortunately, this effort utilizes punitive tariffs, levies and import bans to stimulate import substitution. Despite a lack of infrastructure, poor policy implementation, and an increasing state of insecurity caused by Boko Haram (BH) in the major grain-producing region in northern Nigeria, the GON persists with import substitution policies, weakening food security and increasing informal cross-border trade flows in grain.