This issue of the newsletter is devoted to Nigeria. Despite its considerable demographic and economic weight and its strong influence on the sub-region, this “giant with feet of clay” remains little known, notably in the neighboring French-speaking countries. This issue sheds light on this country’s agricultural sector, and attempts to put it into perspective in regard to neighboring countries. You will find documents on Nigeria’s agricultural economy, farming and stock-farming commodity chains, food security, agricultural policies, agricultural financing, trade policies, cross-border relations and trade, and farmers’ organizations. While we have made every effort to indicate a maximum of documents in English (indicated by “(en)” after each link), some are in French (indicated by “(fr)”).
In addition to this newsletter, we invite you to visit the pages: http://www.inter-reseaux.org/ressources-thematiques/ressources-par-pays/article/ressources-sur-le-nigeria, where you will find an extensive list of other references on Nigeria’s agricultural sector.
The Inter-Réseaux Rural Development Team
Economic Overview of Nigeria
African Economic Outlook: Nigeria
AfricanEconomicOutlook.org grew from the online publication of the annual African Economic Outlook report. It presents comprehensive data and analysis on forty-five African economies, enabling comparative analysis over time and across countries. There, you will find a broad overview of Nigeria’s economy, divided into eight topics: overview, recent economic developments and prospects, macroeconomic policy, structural issues, public resource mobilization, political context, social context and human resource development, and statistics.
Also available is the 2007 report on Nigeria’s economic outlook:
Documents and General Websites on Agriculture in Nigeria
Défis Sud No. 95 – Nigeria : du pétro-géant à l’agro-géant
SOS Faim, June-July 2010
The special report in this issue of Défis Sud is devoted to Nigeria, a country whose demographic (one sixth of Africa’s population) and economic weight influences the entire continent. While agriculture accounts for 45% its GDP, Nigeria is a net importer of food products because it is not very competitive in the agricultural field. In 2009, the government launched an agricultural revival program, which does not seem concerned with the future of smallholder farming. Will this program make Nigeria a driving force or hindrance for regional integration in West Africa? What influence does it have and what are its positions within ECOWAS? This special report provides partial answers to these questions through four articles presenting: Nigeria’s influence in West Africa and the agricultural sector; Nigerian farmers organizations; Nigeria’s relations with its neighbors and its economic flows; and regional integration.
The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) regularly publishes studies on Nigeria’s economy and agricultural policies. The range of subjects covered is vast: public investment in agriculture, agricultural productivity, fertilizer, seeds, gender, commodity chains, agricultural research, decentralization, rural poverty, food security, etc. The largest documents are generally accompanied by short summaries (briefs).
Initiated by the UK Department for International Development (DFID), the “Policy and Knowledge” program (PAK) supports research, analysis, dialogue and advocacy in favor of inclusive growth policies in Nigeria, in particular in the non-oil sector of the economy. The PAK website contains numerous interesting documents on Nigeria’s agricultural sector: agricultural commodity chain analyses, impact of climate change, etc.
Agricultural Policy and Budget Analysis in Nigeria (1999-2007): Perspectives and Implications for SLISSFAN Project States
D. Okoro, O.C. Ujah, Oxfam GB, April 2009, 63 pgs.
This study presents a wide view of the agricultural sector in Nigeria. It contains information on the main agricultural crops and their evolution (location, surface area, yields), agricultural imports and exports, and a history of agricultural policies over the past ten years. This document also sheds light on the evolution of the public budget devoted to agriculture, and more specifically analyzes Nigeria’s 2008 agricultural budget.
A Background Analysis of the Nigerian Agricultural Sector (1998-2007)
I. Azih, November 2008
This report was produced as part of the “Economic Justice” campaign conducted by Oxfam Novib in Nigeria from 2008 to 2012. The first section is a socioeconomic analysis of changes in the Nigerian agricultural sector over the past ten years, with a special focus on the main public policies, statistical data, and projections of possible evolutions in the sector. It then presents a map of the actors involved in the agricultural sector. Based on this analysis, recommendations for advocacy in regard to Nigerian agricultural policy are proposed.
Agriculture in Nigeria: Identifying opportunities for increased commercialization and investment
V. M. Manyong, A. IkpiI, J.K. Olayemi, S.A. Yusuf, R. Omonona, F.S. Idachaba, IITA, UI, USAID-Nigeria, 2003, 216 pgs.
This study attempts to identify opportunities to increase commercialization and investments in agriculture in Nigeria. It examines the performance of the Nigerian agricultural sector in recent years and the country’s agricultural policies, evaluates past and present investments in the agricultural sector, and pinpoints the constraints to private sector investment. It also recommends intervention strategies for the government and donors.
Kano : intensifier tout en respectant l’environnement
I. Maigari, M. Yusuf, Grain de Sel No. 34-35, March-August 2006
Over the past ten years, the Kano region of northern Nigeria has undergone considerable changes ecologically, socioeconomically and in regard to production systems. Despite the very high population density in this state, people’s survival was not threatened as the population had implemented effective adaptation strategies.
Agricultural Policies – ECOWAP
Towards the ECOWAS Common Agricultural Policy Framework: Nigeria Case Study and Regional Analysis
Eric C. Eboh, Kalu O. Oji, Okey G. Oji, Uzochukwu S. Amakom, Oliver C. Ujah, AIAE, August 2004, 197 pgs.
This document is part of a series of country case studies of the agricultural sector in West Africa, produced in the framework of ECOWAP preparations. It presents a diagnosis of Nigeria’s agricultural sector, putting it into perspective in relation to the sub-regional context, and elaborates Nigerian agriculture development scenarios within the ECOWAS regional integration process.
NAIP Briefs, Brochures and Compact
At the end of October 2009, Nigeria signed the ECOWAP/CAADP charter or “Compact” marking the commitment of the government and its partners to making the National Agricultural Investment Plan (NAIP) the sole crucible for all agricultural sector development strategies within the country. These five brochures, five briefs and the signed compact can be found online.
Brochure 1: Review of Ongoing Agricultural Development Effort
Brochure 2: Agricultural Growth, Poverty Reduction and Food Security: Past Performance and Prospective Outcomes
Brochure 3: Strategic Options and Sources for Agricultural Growth, Poverty Reduction and Food Security
Brochure 4: Long-Term Funding for Agricultural Growth, Poverty Reduction and Food Security
Brochure 5: Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System (SAKSS) to Inform and Guide the CAADP Implementation Process
Brief 1: Developing Agricultural Policies and Regulatory System (DAPRS)
Brief 2: Agricultural Commodity Exchange Market (ACCOMEX)
Brief 3: Raising Agricultural Income with Sustainable Environment (RAISE)
Brief 4: Maximizing Agricultural Revenue in Key Enterprises (MARKETS)
Brief 5: Water, Aquaculture and Environmental Resource Management
Nigerian ECOWAP/CAADP Compact (signed)
CAADP Post Compact Review: Preliminary Report
June 2010, 34 pgs.
This document is an analysis of Nigeria’s National Agricultural Investment Plan (NAIP) over the 2010-2012 period; it was produced by the African Union Commission and the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD). It places the emphasis on the degree to which the NAIP aligns with the principles and general framework of the CAADP.
National Agricultural Investment Plan 2010-2013
Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources, August 2010, 81 pgs.
This recent document presents Nigeria’s National Agricultural Investment Plan (NAIP) for the 2010-2013 period: implementation context, description of the plan, calendar, outcomes, and expected impacts.
Agricultural Expenditures: Budget Tracking/Investment Analysis of Agricultural Sector in Nigeria (2000-2008)
O. C. Ujah, O. Dom, CISCOPE, VFS, November 2009, 55 pgs.
This study examines agricultural investment in Nigeria and national agricultural budget tracking. It presents an analysis of public agriculture expenditures, the agricultural credit and insurance sector, and non-state investments in agriculture (banks, development partners). It also covers recent interventions in the Nigerian agricultural sector: the five-point agenda, the Commercial Agriculture Credit Scheme (CACS) 200 Billion Naira Fund, and the $50 Million Microfinance Fund for Nigeria and Ghana.
Nigeria : le retour à la terre après le tout pétrole
Syfia, April 17, 2009
The all-oil era seems to be coming to a close in Nigeria. Following a series of crises that the country had faced in recent years (drop in oil prices, food crisis, etc.), the government, with the support of private investors, decided to spare no expense for agriculture: one billion euros were mobilized in the aim of increasing national production to attain food self-sufficiency and be able to export the surplus. For instance, vast programs were set up: irrigation in the north and south-west, access to credit to finance inputs and labor, rural road construction, etc.
Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET)
The FEWS NET early warning systems network provides information on food security and the emerging and evolving food situation in developing countries. On its Nigeria pages, you will find, among other things: general maps of the country’s food security prospects in the short and medium term, information on food product flows, price studies, weather data, and a framework study of food security in the country (at-risk populations, principal causes of insecurity, etc.).
Preliminary Livelihoods Zoning: Northern Nigeria
J. Holt, FEWS NET, 2007, 55 pgs.
One of the first steps in setting up a food security watch system in a region is to define coherent areas where people share similar livelihood patterns (market systems, methods to secure income, food surveys). This report presents the results of a zoning of this type conducted in 2007 in northern Nigeria. Water availability and soil type are decisive factors. The variety in soil types leads to a wide range of crops, productivity, etc. The resulting maps provide an image of livelihoods in northern Nigeria.
National Food Security Program
Federal Government of Nigeria, 2008, 107 pgs.
This document is the general framework for Nigeria’s national food security program. It determines the program’s objectives and the activities to conduct in regard to farming, stock-farming and fishing (production, storage and processing), agricultural product marketing, agrofuels, research, and agricultural financing.
Marchés et sécurité alimentaire dans le bassin Est : Bénin, Niger, Nigeria, Tchad
CILSS, WFP, FEWS NET, FAO, February 2010, 20 pgs.
This report studies the food situation following the 2009/2010 crop year in the East basin (Benin, Chad, Niger, Nigeria) and offers recommendations to ensure food security in the zone in 2010. The 2009/2010 food crop year was middling in parts of Niger, Chad and northern Nigeria as insufficient rain at the end of the cycle did not make it possible to achieve the hoped-for harvests. However, in Benin, Nigeria and southern Chad, the crop year was fairly good.
National Food Reserve Agency (NFRA)
M.I. Lawal, NFRA, 2010
This slideshow presents Nigeria’s National Food Reserve Agency (NFRA), a parastatal institution of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources. In this slideshow, you will find information on the NFRA’s missions, operation, activities, accomplishments in 2009, and prospects.
Rice Commodity Chain
National Rice Development Strategy
NFRA, JICA, CARD, 2009, 73 pgs.
Nigeria is one of twelve pilot countries in the first phase of the Coalition for African Rice Development’s program aiming to double rice production in sub-Saharan Africa in ten years. This document first provides an overview of the Nigerian rice sector. It then identifies the sector’s potential and opportunities, defines priority actions and approaches, and details the strategies to adopt to triple national rice production.
Media Articles on this Subject:
Nation Plans to Triple Domestic Rice Production (AllAfrica, April 2010)
Nigeria ‘to triple domestic rice production’ (Afrique en ligne, March 2010)
http://www.afriquejet.com/news/africa-news/agriculture :-nigeria-%27to-triple-domestic-rice-production%27-2010032746658.html (en)
Global Food Security Response: West Africa Rice Value Chain
USAID, August 2009, 59 pgs.
This document presents the rice commodity chain in Nigeria, and focuses more specifically on the local commodity chain. Local rice production is encouraged by government measures (notably high customs duties on imported rice) but is still insufficient to cover the country’s needs: Nigeria imports 2.5 to 3 million tons of rice, and produces 2 million tons. To produce more quality rice that meets consumers’ demand, USAID recommends: investing in new, large-scale milling industries; improving services throughout the value chain (input provision, financial services, extension, etc.); investing on farmer level to increase paddy production; and policies, laws and regulations that provide incentives and are elaborated with all actors.
http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CBoQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.microlinks.org%2Ffile_download.php%2FGFSR%2BNigeria%2BRice%2BStudy%2BFINAL.pdf%3FURL_ID%3D22006%26filename%3D12580444231GFSR_Nigeria_Rice_Study_FINAL.pdf%26filetype%3Dapplication%252Fpdf%26filesize%3D1231519%26name%3DGFSR%2BNigeria%2BRice%2BStudy%2BFINAL.pdf%26location%3Duser-S%2F& ;rct=j&q=Global%20food%20security%20response%3A%20West%20Africa%20rice%20value%20chain%20nigeria&ei=w5ClTIiIOIyP4Qbo-oCFDQ&usg=AFQjCNGw67Betksawo6ftD8FUTrMBBp5fg&sig2=4Xeh7a857MU1lHcZnMU4uQ&cad=rja (en)
WARDA Studies on the Rice Value Chain
F. Lançon, O. Erenstein, S.O. Akande, S.O. Titilola, G. Akpokodje, O.O. Ogundele, M. Kebbeh, S. Haefele, S. O. Fagade, O. Osiname, WARDA, USAID
At the start of the 2000s, WARDA (now the “Africa Rice Center”) conducted a series of studies on Nigeria’s rice commodity chain: economy of Nigeria’s rice sector, production systems, imports, processing, productivity of irrigated rice, etc.
Strategy for Rice Sector Revitalization in Nigeria (2003, 18 pgs.)
The Nigerian Rice Economy in a Competitive World: Constraints, Opportunities and Strategic Choices: Imported Rice Retailing and Purchasing in Nigeria: A Survey (2003, 18 pgs.)
Nigeria’s Rice Economy: State of the Art (2001, 57 pgs.)
Rice Production Systems in Nigeria: A Survey (2003, 95 pgs.)
Rice Processing in Nigeria: A Survey (2003, 54 pgs.)
Challenges and Opportunities for Improving Irrigated Rice Productivity in Nigeria (2003, 26 pgs.)
Operationalizing the Strategic Framework for Rice Sector Revitalization in Nigeria (2004, 38 pgs.)
Strategy for Rice Sector Revitalization in Nigeria (2003, 18 pgs.)
Integrated Assessment of the Impact of Trade Liberalization: A Country Study on the Nigerian Rice Sector
United Nations Environment Programme, 2005, 107 pgs.
Nigeria began to apply its structural adjustment programs in 1986, with the aim of reviving its economy. This study presents an assessment of the economic, social and environmental impacts of the liberalization of the Nigerian rice sector.
Cassava Commodity Chain
Successes and Challenges of Cassava Enterprises in West Africa: A Case Study of Nigeria, Benin, and Sierra Leone
L.O. Sanni, O.O. Onadipe, P. Ilona, M.D. Mussagy, A. Abass, and A.G.O. Dixon, IITA, June 2009, 25 pgs.
Cassava is the largest staple food in Nigeria and Benin, and ranks second (after rice) in Sierra Leone. Until the early 1990s, the cassava produced in these countries mainly came from traditional varieties. Since the early 2000s, several West African countries have endeavored to promote cassava as an industrial crop. This study sheds light on the cassava production, processing and marketing sectors in West Africa, and on the development of equipment and research in this commodity chain. It also analyzes the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and constraints of this commodity chain in West Africa.
Socioeconomic studies on selected cassava markets in Nigeria
C. Ezedinma, L. Sanni, R. Okechukwu, IITA, 2007, 47 pgs.
This publication contains three case studies on the marketing of cassava-based products in Nigeria: the cross-border trade in cassava-based products in Dawanau market, Kano (northern Nigeria); marketing of gari in Benin City and Enugu (south-eastern Nigeria); and traditional institutions and market information in the cassava fufu market at Ifo, Ogun state (south-western Nigeria).
Cowpea Commodity Chain
A Study of the Cowpea Value Chain in Kano State, Nigeria, from a Pro-Poor and Gender Perspective
USAID, June 2008, 56 pgs.
Cowpeas play a key role in the agriculture and food security of Nigeria, that produces approximately 45% of the global cowpea production and, until 2004, was the largest cowpea importer. The actors in the commodity chain are numerous and the majority are poor, and women play a major role in processing and sale. This study, most specifically focused on Kano State, Nigeria’s main production basin, presents an analysis of the commodity chain and recommendations, including in particular: (i) farmer training and access to cowpea storage; (ii) a more conducive environment for the development of processing industries; and (iii) support targeting informal sector processors and vendors.
West African Borders and Integration (WABI)
The “West African Borders and Integration” (WABI) initiative was launched under the impetus of a workshop on border cooperation held in Ouagadougou in July 2003. It is supported by the National Borders Directorate of Mali, ENDA-Diapol, and the Sahel and West Africa Club. WABI is based on the convergence of these three institutions and on the pooling of information with a network of partners around a common concern: promoting cross-border cooperation to drive regional integration, development and peace.
WABI’s website contains many interesting documents on cross-border trade, notably between northern Nigeria and Niger (the Kano-Katsina-Maradi (K2M) region):
Food Security and Cross-Border Trade in the Kano–Katsina–Maradi (K²M) Corridor
CILSS, FEWS NET, OCHA, SWAC, UNICEF, WAMIS-NET, WFP, 2006, 51 pgs.
Maradi-Katsina-Kano: A Development Corridor?
M. Abdoul, K. Dahou, M. Trémolières, ENDA-Diapol, SWAC Secretariat, 36 pgs.
Accelerated Urbanisation in the Maradi-Katsina-Kano Cross-Border Area
WABI, May 2005, 3 pgs.
Potentials and Challenges in the Maradi-Katsina-Kano Area
WABI, May 2005, 2 pgs.
Commercial Agricultural Trade in the Maradi-Katsina-Kano Area
WABI, May 2005, 2 pgs.
Nigeria: Fallout from Niger food crisis
IRIN, June 3, 2010
The food insecurity situation in Niger in mid-2010 generated a high demand for grain that Nigerien markets could not meet. Grain merchants therefore bought grain from markets in northern Nigeria, lowering grain stockpiles in these areas. Despite reassuring official discourse on the status of Nigeria’s strategic stockpiles, Nigerian populations in these regions are also threatened with food shortages.
Prospects for Trade Between Nigeria and its Neighbours
Bio Goura Soulé, OECD, 2001
In this report, Bio Goura Soulé analyzes the prospects for trade between Nigeria and its neighbors in light of national and regional policies. This report comprises seven thematic fact files: a retrospective account of past trade between Nigeria and its neighbors; trade in petroleum products; an analysis of changes in Nigeria’s trade policy; Nigeria’s monetary policy; the role of trading networks in regional trade; the constraints on trade between Nigeria and its neighbors; and a prospective analysis of trade between Nigeria and its neighbors.
By the same author, on the same subject:
Les dynamiques d’intégration dans la zone d’emprise du Nigeria
Bio Goura Soulé, 2004
This document examines the issues and dynamics at work in the East sub-area, which includes Nigeria and its four neighbors (Benin, Niger, Chad and Cameroon). Nigeria is still the driving force of the sub-area around which the entire zone’s dynamic is built. The challenges for sectoral policies, and notably for the common agricultural policy, are numerous in this region.
Regional Workshop on the Regional Cattle Trade Between Nigeria and Neighboring Countries
L. Liagre, IRAM, May 2004, 114 pgs.
Based on better knowledge of the Nigerian demand for meat, of the supply structure in exporting countries, and of how regional trade operates, studies were conducted to provide the foundations for reflection to formulate action proposals likely to allow Sahelian meat to profit fully from changes in the Nigerian market. This workshop report takes a particular interest in the export of bovines from Chad and cattle from Niger to Nigeria.
Trade Policy Review: Nigeria
This WTO report reviews Nigeria’s trade policies. It notes that Nigeria’s increasing barriers to trade limit the benefits from its participation in the multilateral trading system. Liberalization, by simplifying import duties, increasing the scope of its binding commitments, and lifting import prohibitions, should enhance the predictability of Nigeria’s trade regime, and contribute to a better allocation of resources and to the diversification of Nigeria’s economy, which is still too dependent on petroleum products.
Research and trade policy formulation: the case of Nigeria’s adoption of the ECOWAS common external tariff
K. Ajayi, P. Osafo-Kwaako, 2007, 23 pgs.
In October 2005, Nigeria and the other Members of ECOWAS adopted a Common External Tariff (CET). This article examines the role played by research in the adoption of the CET. The main conclusion is that research played a fairly limited role in the CET adoption process. Some studies on the CET were used directly by policy-makers, and therefore had an indirect influence on the activities of other members of government. However, overall, the research was little used during these reforms.
Nigeria: Mainstreaming Trade Policy into National Development Strategies
I. N. Briggs, ATPC, 2007, 54 pgs.
This article examines Nigeria’s trade policy and the country’s process for formulating trade policy. In particular, it analyzes Nigeria’s trade policy coherence with national development strategies.
Assessing the Economic Impacts of an Economic Partnership Agreement on Nigeria
World Bank, April 2009, 38 pgs.
This World Bank study examines the potential impacts of the Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) with the European Union on Nigeria’s economy. The results of a simulation suggest that the EPA would have only a slight influence on Nigeria’s total imports. According to the authors, the EPA is an opportunity to accelerate the reforms aiming to liberalize trade.
The Position of NANTS on the EPA
K. Ukaoha, NANTS, August 2010, 9 pgs.
This paper clarifies the National Association of Nigerian Traders (NANTS) organization’s position on the Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs). NANTS views the EPA negotiations as crucial and necessary, but the association wants agreements that will further the development of the West African region.
By the same author, on the same subject:
L’APE avec la Cedeao : l’oraison funèbre de l’intégration régionale ?
K. Ukaoha, NANTS, June 5, 2009
In this article on the future of regional integration in West Africa, NANTS claims that the current EPA approach for ECOWAS could lead to the disintegration of the integration process, and that it is urgent to envisage greater flexibility. It also points out the fundamental role that Nigeria could play in regional integration: “Nigeria is still the savior of regional integration in West Africa in the face of EPAs.”
ECOWAS CET: The Imperatives of Nigeria’s Fifth Band
K. Ukaoha, NANTS, 6 pgs.
NANTS’ position is to encourage the creation of a fifth band for the ECOWAS common external tariff (CET).
Farmers’ Organizations, Unions
Farmers’ organisations in Nigeria: an overview
Agriterra, 2008, 32 pgs.
This report was produced following an Agriterra study aiming to increase understanding of farmers’ organizations in Nigeria and the context in which they exist. It starts by presenting an overview of Nigeria and its agricultural sector; then, it provides an overview of Nigerian FOs from the local level to national federations. More detailed information on these organizations (background, objectives, members, activities, status, contact information, etc.) is available in the appendices.
Voices for Food Security Campaign Resources
Voices for Food Security (VFS) is a national consortium composed of Nigerian farmers’ organizations and civil society organizations; it is conducting a food security campaign in Nigeria. With this aim, it promotes increased public investment in the agricultural sector in favor of small farmers. This campaign is supported by ActionAid Nigeria and Oxfam International. Several documents published by VFS are available online: Documents presenting the Voices for Food Security Campaign:
Voices for Food Security Campaign (brochure):
About VFS and Our Charter of Demands (detailed explanation of the demands addressed to the Nigerian government and international donors):
Nigeria: Policy Template for Implementing the National Food Security Programme (NFSP)
This bulletin presents the main orientations of the National Food Security Programme (NFSP) and compares them to those of the VFS campaign. It presents VFS’s recommendations for implementing the NFSP with the aim of attaining food security in the country: a focus on small farmers, more policy coherence and stability, and greater involvement by civil society actors in agricultural development.