In January 2005, the Heads of State and Government of the Economic Community Of West African States (ECOWAS) adopted a regional agricultural policy: ECOWAP. Ten years later, where are we in regard to this ambitious policy that aimed to improve food security, and economic and social development, and reduce poverty and inequalities throughout the region? What programmes and systems have been set up? Have they been able to attain their targets? This Brief addresses these questions. It was written following the ten-year ECOWAP assessment process conducted by ECOWAS in 2015. The first section reviews the ambition of ECOWAP’s initial objectives. The second section reports on the implementation of this policy. The third section highlights certain elements of its results and points of discussion.