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publié dans Ressources le 24 août 2007

General references


Local economic development and marketing of urban produced food
IDRC (Canada), G. Danso, P. Moustier, in Cities farming for the future : urban agriculture for green and productive cities, 2006
The authors explain that approaches in considering rural or urban areas for urban food production must be now more balanced than before. Urban agriculture (UA) can no longer be seen as not viable and a growing body of evidence supports the complementarity between the 2 forms of urban food supply. You’ll find here some description of livelihood strategies, comparative advantages for marketing due to the proximity between production and consumption (Short marketing chains; Low price differential; Information on quality and control…) and also some constraints of UA (scattering of plots and small volumes of transactions; difficult circulation of information on market supply among farmers…).

Agri-processing /agri-food markets

Regoverning Markets: small-scale producers in modern agri-food markets
Regoverning markets website
Rapid changes are taking place in agri-food markets in middle and low-income countries. The spread of dynamic modern retailers, wholesalers and food processing businesses is reshaping the way that food systems are governed. Small-scale agriculture, which supports the livelihoods of the majority of rural poor, is poorly prepared for these changes.
The Regoverning Markets programme has been established to provide that research and support.

Building bridges between processors and smallholders in Africa: are contracts an answer? Case studies of agri-processing and contract agriculture in Africa
Latin American Center for Rural Development (RIMISP), Sautier, D.; Vermeulen, H.; Fok, M.; Biénabe, E, 2006
This paper presents specific experiences in Africa, involving small and medium farmers and agri-processors. It illustrates the capacity of farmers and food processors to leverage agricultural growth , take advantage of untapped sources of growth and generate pro-poor development through adequate institutions.
Acknowledging that small and medium size farmers in Africa face unique and difficult market constraints, the paper highlights the potential of contractual arrangements in governing relationships farmers and agri-processors. Although the effectiveness of contracts can vary, the case studies in this document show ways through which contractual arrangements can support the market participation of small and medium farmers and foster agricultural growth for poverty alleviation.
Link to regoverning markets

Global Food Chains and for Smallholders
International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD), Oli Brown with Christina Sander, march 2007
Supermarkets now dominate food sales in developed countries and are rapidly expanding their global presence. This paper is about the impact of the supermarkets’ increased market power on global supply chains and what this means for smallholder farmers in the developing world trying to sell their produce to the potentially lucrative markets of the developed world. (PDF – 168 kb)

Impact of Supermarkets
FAO website, 2004-2005
What impacts of supermarket practices on small farmers in Asia and the way procurement channels have developed? A workshop held in Kuala Lumpur in October 2004, FAO hoped to contribute to an increased understanding of the issues that needed to be addressed. Reports from that workshop are available on that page.
It also considers the impact of supermarket growth on traditional marketing systems.

Role of producers’ organizations

Farmer organisation and market access
J. Hellin, M. Lundy, M.Meijer, in LEISA Magazine, volume 23, Issue 1 – How farmers organise, March 2007
Farmer organisation (FO) has been identified as a key factor in enhancing farmers’ access to markets. Nevertheless, « sometimes, it may not be in farmers’ interests to organise themselves for market sales. In some cases the establishment of FO incurs transaction costs which, if too high, may mean that farmers are better off not organising. FO for what purpose ? Once organised, who can FO partner with ? FO may benefit from improved access to agricultural inputs and technological services ». It just does suppose that such services do exist…[o_id]=90668p[a_id]=211p[a_seq]=1]

Approaches to linking producers to markets : a review of experiences to date
FAO, Andrew Shepherd, 2007
This paper examines experiences of linking farmers to markets, in order to reach some tentative conclusions regarding success factors. It mainly considers examples of linkages promoted by organizations such as NGOs.
Linking farmers to new markets invariably involves farmers organizing into formal or informal groups. Experiences with group organization are reviewed, as is the question of finance.

Linking Farmers to Markets – case studies, FAO
Fao website
A selection of brief case studies of ways in which farmers have linked with markets, through their own efforts and with assistance from others. Not all can be considered success stories, because in some cases problems have been encountered, but all illustrate different approaches to improving farmers’ market access.

Specific markets

European Commission launches new handbook on geographical indications
European Commission website, 27 June 2007
The European Commission has published on its website a new handbook on
Geographical indications. Geographical indications (GIs) are forms of identification which identify a product as originating in the territory of a particular country, or a region or locality in that country. For a GI product, its reputation for quality or any other characteristic is intimately linked to its geographical origin. Geographical Indications are a type of intellectual property. Wider protection for Geographical Indications from around the world is a key goal for the EU in the ongoing WTO Doha trade negotiations.

Organic food : a privilege of the Northern countries ?
Farming dynamics, Sos Faim, January 2007
Most organic products from Southern countries are destined to be consumed in Northern countries where they are often processed, such as coffee, cocoa and tea. Therefore, Southern producers hardly benefit from the products’ added value. What is the status of processing and trading of organic products within Southern countries ? Are there initiatives to develop them to the benefit of local producers ? An innovative experience in this field was developed by Association of Bolivian Organic Producers’ Organisations (AOPEB) of which a brief presentation is included in the present issue. Doc pdf 166 Ko

One-on-one consumer-farmer relationships

Community Supported Agriculture (CSA)
United States Department of Agriculture website
Community Supported Agriculture consists of a community of individuals who pledge support to a farm operation so that the farmland becomes, either legally or spiritually, the community’s farm, with the growers and consumers providing mutual support and sharing the risks and benefits of food production.

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