Agrifood systems are a major employer of women globally and are a more important source of income for women than men in many countries. Despite this recognized importance of agrifood systems for the development of women and the well-being of their families, their roles tend to be marginalized and their working conditions significantly more precarious than those of men. This paradox does not leave the FAO indifferent, which devotes a large part of its report to analyzing the multiple sources of inequalities which limit their participation, their well-being and their empowerment. The vulnerable situation of women in food systems around the world is widely illustrated in this document. Policies and approaches that have supported gender equality and women’s empowerment are also examined. The report sets out to show how the equal participation of women in agrifood systems can impact agricultural production and socio-economic development on a community, national and even global scale.